Nepal is considered one of the most diverse countries in flora and fauna. Nepal's unique geography, with associated variations in the physiographic and climatic conditions, has resulted in rich biodiversity. At the species level, the rapid change along the environmental gradient gives rise to high beta diversity. The country occupies only 0.1 percent of the global area, but harbors over three percent and one percent of the world's known flora and fauna, respectively. Nepal harbors 208 mammas, 867 birds, 123 reptiles, 55 (+-) amphibians, 230 freshwater fish, and 651 butterfly species. This high species diversity is also accompanied by high endemism. Increasing steadily from low to high elevations, a total of 284 flowering plants and 160 animal species, including one mammal species, one bird species, and 24 herpetofauna are endemic to Nepal.
To protect all these unique floras and faunas, the Government of Nepal has established 6 conservation areas, one hunting reserve, 12 national parks, and one wildlife reserve. Among these national parks, Bardiya National park and Chitwan National Park are famous for jungle safari
Chitwan National Park:
Established in the year 1973, Chitwan National park covers an area of 952 sq. km. Situated in the southern part of Nepal in the Chitwan district. It was recognized as the country's first national park and was later listed as World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1984 because of its unique and rare bio-diversity. The Chitwan geography consists of tropical and subtropical forests with the majority covered by saal forests. Sal leaves are used locally for plates in festivals and religious offerings. Grasslands cover 20 percent of the park. There are more than 50 different types of grasses, including the elephant grass (Saccharum spp ), renowned for its immense height. It can grow up to 8m in height. The park is home to more than 50 mammal species, over 525 birds, and 55 amphibians and reptiles. The endangered fauna found in the park is the One-horned rhinoceros, Gaur. Royal Bengal tiger. Wild elephant, Four-horned antelope, Pangolin, Golden monitor lizard, Python, etc. Bengal florican. Lesser florican, Giant hornbill, Black stork, While stork, etc.
Facilities available in Chitwan National Park:
There is a lot of information center at Sauraha that provide detailed information about the Chitwan National Park and its features. Sauraha is a small tourist town located in the vicinity of Chitwan National Park. It is filled with many beautiful restaurants which offer cuisines from parts of the world. along with the restaurants, there are lots of local souvenir shops to buy gifts and souvenirs. Various jungle safari agency provides jungle safari services by elephants, jeeps, or by foot. Elephant safari provides a beautiful opportunity to explore the dense part of the national parks where you might get a chance to see the endangered but majestic Royal Bengal Tiger and one-horned rhinos. Deers, peacocks, flamingos, wild hogs, etc are commonly seen on the banks of the Rapti river. along the sandy banks of the river, you can see gharials and alligators taking a sunbath.
Bardia National Park:
Established in 1976, Bardiya National Park is the largest national park in Nepal covering an area of 968 sq. km. Located in western Terai, Bardiya National Park is famous for Royal Bengal Tiger.
The park offers a variety of experiences in its vast undisturbed wilderness. About 70% of the forest consists of sal trees with a mixture of grassland and riverine forests. Sal leaves are used as traditional plates in festivals and religious offerings. The park is home to endangered animals such as the Royal Bengal tiger, wild elephant, greater one-horned rhinoceros, swamp deer, and black buck, The other endangered species include gharial and marsh mugger crocodiles and Gangetic dolphin. Endangered birds found in the park are the Bengal florican, lesser florican, and sarus crane. More than 30 different mammals, over 230 species of birds, and several species of snakes, lizards, and fishes have been recorded In the parking area. In addition to the resident species, several migratory birds visit the park.